List Of Web References





Informative Focus



001-   Goodwill Hunting; State Dept. Turning to Celebs for Image Enhancement. By William Triplett. Variety International, May 7, 2006

After a recent tour of the region, Karen Hughes, now State's undersecretary for public diplomacy, hit upon the idea of recruiting. American Celebes for the agency's international speakers program. Before, academics usually participated, but Hughes thought "a more strategic program" involving bold-face names would be more effective, a State Dept. official says.


002-   Realism and Idealism: US Policy toward Saudi Arabia, from the Cold War to the Present Day. By Bradley L. Bowman. Parameters, vol. 35, no. 4, Winter 2005-06

In this examination of U.S.-Saudi relations, Bowman acknowledges that it is easier to critique existing American policy than it is to implement change. However, he proposes a new U.S. approach to the Middle East that would require balancing American idealist values and realist interests. If the U.S. can pursue this grand strategy, we will simultaneously foster Middle Eastern stability, protect American national interests and promote the transition to a more democratic Middle East.


003-   Arab Worries of a Rising Iran. Analysis. By Lionel Beehner. Council on Foreign Relations, April 20, 2006

The poor relations between the Persian and Arab worlds stretch back centuries, at times driven by religious and cultural competition in the region. The latest frictions have surfaced over the conflict in Iraq, with Arab leaders concerned over Iran's influence on Iraq's Shiite majority political groups. The author gives details.


004-   Beyond Abu Ghraib: Detention and Torture in Iraq. Amnesty International USA, April 2006

The article explores that "Nearly three years after United States (US) and allied forces invaded Iraq and toppled the government of Saddam Hussain, the human rights situation in the country remains dire. The deployment of US-led forces in Iraq and the armed response that engendered has resulted in thousands of deaths of civilians and widespread abuses amid the ongoing conflict".


005-   American Credibility Erodes Abroad. By David Wood. Newhouse News Service (NNS), May 17, 2006

"The United States has often irritated the rest of the world, but lately it's gotten worse and more dangerous. In increasing numbers, people around the globe resent American power and wealth and reject specific actions like the occupation of Iraq and the campaign against democratically elected Palestinian leaders, in-depth international polling shows. America's image problem is pervasive, deep and perhaps permanent; analysts say — an inevitable outcome of being the world's only superpower" says the author, highlighting issues.


006-   American Fortresses; It's hard to carry out our foreign policy from behind thick concrete walls. By Andrew Natsios. The Weekly Standard, May 22, 2006

"In December 2005, the Agency for International Development's new building in the Green Zone in Baghdad, looked different than today. The facility houses a staff of 150, who run AID's $5.2 billion program of Aid to Iraq. The building has no windows, the outside doors are as thick as the doors of a bank vault, and the walls and ceilings are constructed of several feet of reinforced concrete: a fortress virtually invulnerable to an insurgent attack. It sits in a compound surrounded by high concrete walls, barbed wire, and advanced security technology of every kind." The author gives details.


007-   State's Hughes Calls for More People-to-People Exchanges. Under Secretary visits Morocco on "listening and learning" tour. By David Shelby. USINFO, Department of tates, June 5, 2006



Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs Karen Hughes told a group of young Moroccan women June 4 that people-to-people exchanges are the basis of good public diplomacy. Hughes visited Casabasket, a Moroccan-run basketball program in Casablanca initiated by the Casablanca-Chicago Sister Cities Association and supported by American basketball organizations. Hughes went on an eight-day listening and learning tour of Morocco, Belgium and the Czech Republic.


008-   State's Zoellick Sees Important Changes Under Way in Mideast. By David Shelby. USINFO, Department of State, May 21, 2006

The Middle East is undergoing an important era of change, and the United States will continue supporting those in the region who champion political and economic reforms, according to Deputy Secretary of State Robert Zoellick. t


009-   The Uncertain Cost of the Iraq War. By Anthony Cordesman. Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), May 10, 2006

There is no agreement as to how the Iraq War should be costed, although it is clear that cost of the Iraq War in dollars has been far greater than the Bush Administration planned in going toward.

In fact, the rising costs of the Iraq War provide a grim warning about the inability to anticipate how US forces should be shaped on the basis of even the best strategic thinking and plans. The report gives more details.


010-   The Use of the Internet by Islamic Extremists: Testimony presented to the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, on May 4, 2006. RAND Corporation, Testimony. Series No. CT-262-1, May 10, 2006

One of the enduring axioms of terrorism is that it is designed to generate publicity and attract attention to the terrorists and their cause. Terrorism is widely seen as a violent act that is conceived specifically to attract attention and then, through the publicity it generates, to communicate a message. The testimony gives details.


011-   U.S. Request to Extend Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Deadline for Complete Destruction of Chemical Weapons Stocks. Fact Sheet. By Ambassador Eric Javits. U.S. Department of State, April 20, 2006

The United States is requesting an extension of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) deadline for destroying 100% of Chemical Weapons stocks from April 29, 2007 to April 29, 2012. (The CWC requires such a request be submitted by April 29, 2006.

The U.S. remains deeply committed to the CWC and eliminating its entire stockpile of chemical weapons by the earliest possible date, in a safe and secure manner.


012-   Al-Qaeda's Media Strategies. By Marc Lynch. The National Interest. Spring 2006

Lynch examines Al-Qaeda's relationship with Arab media, Bin Laden and Zawahiri's media strategies, the migration of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and other Jihadists from satellite TV to the Internet, and Arab media coverage of Bin Laden's videos and the Iraqi insurgency.


013-   Egypt's Media Deficit. By Adel Iskandar. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 7, No. 1, Winter/Spring 2006

The author, an expert on Middle East media and co-author of Al-Jazeera, sees cautious optimism in Egypt, the most populous Arab country, because of recent electoral reforms. He observes, however, "Although changes to Egypt's press appear substantial in recent years, a vibrant media system that encourages civil society, civic participation, and political empowerment remains a distant mirage."

He describes many of the changes as symbolic, pointing out that most national television coverage is strictly controlled by the government and that the publicized use of the Internet in the recent campaign was "ineffectual at best, and mere publicity stunts for foreign observers at worst."


014-   Free Societies Must Support Press Freedom, Rice Says. By Alexandra Abboud. USINFO, Department of State, May 3, 2006

May 3rd marks World Press Freedom Day, a day on which free societies celebrate the importance of free press to civil society and evaluate the state of press freedom around the world. The day also serves as a reminder to governments to respect their commitments to uphold the fundamental rights of journalists and their public audience's right to be informed about the state of their countries and the world.


015-   A View from the Embassy. By Robert J. Callahan. American Journalism Review, April/May, 2006

Callahan, a career foreign service officer on assignment as a public diplomacy fellow at George Washington University, provides insights into challenges facing journalists and diplomats in Iraq during his year as press Attache in Baghdad (June 2004 -May 2005)


016-   Media Emerging, E-Journal. USINFO, Department of State, March 2006



Innovation in information technologies has thrust the world into an era of democratic media in which people have access to news and information unbound from traditional barriers of time and geography. Innovation gives rise to new media formats with new models for information distribution, consumption, and use. Traditional lines between the audience and media institutions are crossed as citizens gain access to platforms from which to express their own ideas and opinions, circumventing media corporations and governments, the long-standing gatekeepers of information.

Experts and pioneers in these changing technologies share their thoughts on this E-Journal, describing the innovations unfolding and offering a vision of what may lie ahead.


017-   Democracy, Realistically. By John M. Owen IV. The National Interest, Spring 2006

Professor Owen of University of Virginia examines the debate between realist critics of democratization and those "principled realists" (or "pragmatic idealists") who argue a connection between values and interests -- and see "efficiency gains" in the expansion of the zone of democracies. Owen pursues a middle course and provides a nuanced analysis of the gains and problems with democracy promotion.


018-   Is Patriotism Good For Democracy? A Study of High School Seniors' Patriotic Commitments. By Kahne, Joseph Kahne; Ellen Middaugh. Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 87, no. 8, Spring 2006

From their 2005 survey of 2,366 California high school seniors, authors Kahne and Middaugh conclude that educators have serious work to do if they hope to foster a strong and committed sense of democratic patriotism in their students. The authors found that while more than 73 percent of the seniors surveyed agreed that "the United States is a great country" and that 68 percent agreed that they "oppose some U.S. policies because I care about my country and want to improve it," these students were also three times more likely to endorse the idea that it is "un-American to criticize the country." Only 41 percent of the surveyed seniors agreed that "to be truly patriotic, one has to be involved in the civic and political life of the community".


019-   What Do Islamists Really Want? An Insider's Discussion with Islamist Leaders. By Abdeslam Maghraou. U.S. Institute of Peace (USIP). Briefing, May 22, 2006.

"As part of its "mobilizing the moderates" theme, the Muslim World Initiative of USIP organized an off-the-record roundtable discussion on May 5, 2006, on the viability of democratic politics within an Islamic framework." The writer says. "The USI P Briefing highlights the central themes and questions that emerged during the discussions.... with reference to "Islamist parties," and their strategies that are the products of local power relations".


020-   Rice Pledges Commitment to Liberty and Democracy. By Michael Jay Friedman. USINFO, Department of State, June 14, 2006



Secretary of state says free peoples create a more stable world Michael Jay Friedman Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice pledges the United States will remain engaged in the world and would ground its foreign policy in the nation's founding ideals of liberty and democracy.


021-   American Muslims to Visit Europe in New Citizen Dialogue Project. By Marissa Eubanks. US1NFO, Department of State, June 16, 2006



The United States and Europe are going through significant debates about immigration and integration right now, so "there is a lot we can learn from each other," says Mehdi Alhassani, 22, an American Muslim from Boston. There will be four delegates to visit Germany, Netherlands, Denmark to discuss U.S. experiences.


022-   Arab Americans Trace Their Immigrant Roots to the 1870s. By Afzal Khan. USINFO, Department of State, June 15, 2006



A history of Arab immigration to the United States and the community's political participation as American citizens were highlighted at a recent conference at the Woodrow Wilson International Center in Washington.


023-   Cool Jazz and Cold War: Dana Gioia Interviews Dave Brubeck. By Dana Gioia. The American Interest, Spring 2006

The National Endowment for the Arts Chairman Gioia talks with jazz legend Brubeck about cultural diplomacy, the Jazz Ambassadors program, his experiences touring under U.S. State Department auspices, and the power of jazz as a medium of cultural exchange.



024-   Empire State Building Celebrates 75th Anniversary. USINFO, Department of State, June 12, 2006

For more than a century, steel-framed towers piercing ever higher into the sky have captured the modern imagination. "One of the most stupendous, one of the most magnificent opportunities ... ever offered to the spirit of man," wrote architect and "father of the skyscraper" Louis Sullivan of the lofty structures. "The force and power of altitude must be in it, the glory and pride of exaltation must be in it." In fact, throughout the world, the iconic skyscraper symbolizes New York.


025-   San Francisco Then and Now. By John Dvorak. American Heritage, vol. 57, no. 2, April/May 2006

This year marks the 100th anniversary of the 1906 earthquake in San Francisco. The article describes how the city recovered from one of the greatest natural disasters to strike the U.S., and the potential earthquake threats that lie ahead. The author, who studied earthquakes for 16 years at the U.S. Geological Survey, continues to monitor potential and real-time quakes. San Francisco is his favorite city and he gives a wonderful written "tour" of the architectural survivors.


026-   Scan This Book! By Kevin Kelly. New York Times Magazine, May 14, 2006

The idea for a "universal library" of all the world's knowledge dates back at least to the legendary library at Alexandria, Egypt, in 300 B.C. Today that idea is being revived by the search engine company Google, which is currently scanning all the several million books in five major research libraries. These books eventually will be linked in the same manner as articles and web pages now accessible through Internet search engines. Author Kevin Kelly, the "senior maverick" for wired magazine, looks at the implications of this astonishing project. "The static world of book knowledge is about to be transformed by the same elevation of relationships [as on linked web pages], as each page in a book discovers other pages and other books. Once text is digital, books seep out of their bindings and weave themselves together. The collective intelligence of a library allows us to see things we can't see in a single, isolated book."


027-   Free Trade Essential for Global Poverty Reduction, Bush Says. By Kathryn McConnell. USINFO, Department of State, June 15,2006



Free trade is essential for reducing global poverty, says President Bush. Speaking June 15 to approximately 200 U.S. business executives, civic leaders and policy experts in Washington, Bush challenged all countries to reduce trade barriers to make development aid more effective and to complete the Doha Development Agenda trade talks. "The strategy to defeat extreme poverty begins with trade," Bush said at the 2006 National Summit to end poverty sponsored by the private-sector Initiative for Global Development (IDG).


028-   Making a World of Difference through Development Alliances. By Dan Runde. Public Manager, Vol. 34, No. 4, Winter 2005/2006

Runde, Director of the Office of Global Development Alliances at USAID, says in the last thirty years, U.S. aid has undergone an important shift: more than 80 percent of resources flowing from the U.S. to the developing world now come from sources other than official development assistance (ODA).

USAID created the Office of Global Development Alliances (GDA) to manage private-public partnerships designed to ensure coordinated, effective use of aid, regardless of source, he explains. He says GDA's success comes with lessons learned, such as: the importance of showcasing success stories; the need to invest in staff training; adaptability is essential to innovation; and, metrics must be established and used to document effectiveness.


029-   The Threat of Global Poverty. By Susan E. Rice. National Interest, No. 83, Spring 2006

The author, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, believes that global poverty is not just a humanitarian concern but a threat to U.S. national security. Poverty erodes weak states' capacity to prevent the spread of disease and protect the world's forests and watersheds, creates conditions that are conducive to transnational criminal enterprises and terrorist activity, and enhances tensions that erupt in civil conflict, she explains.


030-   WTO Still Divided over Agricultural Tariffs, U.S. Negotiator Says. By Bruce Odessey, USINFO, Department of State, June 16, 2006

A deal on agricultural market access is still beyond reach with little time left for World Trade Organization negotiations, a U.S. trade official says. Jason Hafemeister, assistant U.S. trade representative, tells reporters in Geneva that participants remain far apart over tariff cuts, exceptions for politically sensitive products and limits on temporary safeguards to restrict import surges.


031-   Assessing the Goals, Schedule and Costs of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Hearing. Subcommittee on Energy, U.S. House Committee on Science, April 6, 2006

Nuclear reactors generate about 20 percent of the electricity used in the U.S. No New nuclear plants have been ordered in the U.S. since 1973, but there is renewed interest in nuclear energy both because it could reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil and because it produces no greenhouse gas emissions. One of the barriers to increased use of nuclear energy is concern about nuclear waste.


032-   Anything into Oil. By Brad Lemley. Discover, Vol. 27, No. 4, April 2006

Lemley detailed the thermal conversion process (formerly called the thermal depolymerization process) of using heat and pressure to convert waste materials into fuel oil and other recyclable materials in May 2003, and he provided an update on the challenges of starting full-scale processing in July 2004. Now he reports on the operation of the first commercial bio-refinery in the world that can make oil from a variety of waste. This plant converts turkey slaughterhouse waste into fuel oil, high-grade fertilizer and water. Start-up delays, technical adjustments and higher operating costs have resulted in financial losses, but the owner of the plant expects it to begin operating at a profit because a federal government subsidy for renewable diesel fuel went into effect in early 2006.


033-   Bush Creates World's Largest Marine, Protected Area. USINFO, Department of State, June 16, 2006

The largest single conservation area in U.S. history, and the largest protected marine area anywhere in the world was established by President Bush June 15. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument is distinctive not only for its size but as a unique ecosystem hosting a diversity of life, some of which is found nowhere else. The archipelago stretching almost 2,600 kilometers across the central Pacific Ocean is home to more than 7,000 marine species, and is the largest and healthiest coral-reef system in the United States.


034-   The Coming Natural Gas Cartel. By Michael J. Economides. Foreign Policy, March 28, 2006

The author, editor-in-chief of the Energy Tribune, warns of the dangers of the formation of a cartel by the world's suppliers of natural gas, pointing out that natural gas is increasingly popular because it is the world's cleanest-burning fossil fuel. Historically the United States has relied on domestic sources, but increasing demand and the inevitable decline of domestic production will combine to force an increase in the importation of natural gas, in competition with other importing countries. The author gives details.


035-   The Fountain of Health. By David Rotman. Technology Review, vol. 1089, no. 1, March/April 2006

Anti-aging researchers aren't likely to find ways to extend life anytime soon. But their work could provide a powerful approach to treating the many diseases of old age. There is evidence, for example, that calorie restriction — which extends the life spans of rodents -- affects the molecular and genetic events that govern aging and the diseases of aging. Researchers are already using insights gained from studies of aging and the effects of calorie restriction to search for new drugs to treat such diseases as cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's, type 2 diabetes, and cancer, all of which rise exponentially with age. Some biologists are working to develop a drug that mimics the molecular effects of calorie restriction — a regime that's too demanding for many people to follow. At least two companies — Elixir Pharmaceuticals and Sirtris, both in assachusetts — have been founded to discover drugs for age-related diseases using core technologies built around anti aging genes.


036-   The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: Progress Report and Issues for Congress. CRS report, April 25, 2006

The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, is an independent foundation intended to attract and rapidly disburse new resources in developing countries for countering the three diseases. The Fund is a financing vehicle, not a development agency, and its grants are intended to complement existing efforts rather than replace them.

The origins of the concept of an independent funding mechanism to fight AIDS and other diseases lie partly in a French proposal made in 1998, in ideas developed in the 106th Congress, and in recommendations made by U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan in April 2001. President Bush made the "founding pledge" of $200 million for a disease fund in May 2001. The Global Fund was established in January 2002, following negotiations involving donor and developing country governments, nongovernmental rganizations (NGOs), the private sector, and the United Nations.


037-   The U.S. and International Response to the Global Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress. CRS report, updated May 1, 2006.

There are many strains of avian influenza virus infecting poultry. Influenza A/H5N1 is a strain of influenza currently spreading throughout the world. Although it is bird flu, it has infected a relatively small number of people and killed more than half of those infected. Some scientists are concerned that H5N1 may cause the next influenza pandemic. The first human H5N1 fatalities outside of Asia occurred in 2006 when Turkey and Iraq announced their first human deaths related to H5N1 infection in January and February, followed by Azerbaijan and Egypt in March.


038-   Department of States Begins Issuance of an Electronic Passport. U.S. Department of State, February 17, 2006

The Department of State is phasing-in the issuance of the new Electronic Passport (e-passport) to better facilitate international travel for U.S. citizens and enhance border security. On December 30, 2005, the Department began limited production of the first-ever U.S. e-passports. As part of a pilot program, the U.S. is now issuing diplomatic passports and soon official passports in electronic format.


039-   Fatah and Hamas: the New Palestinian Factional Reality. By Aaron D. Pina. CRS Report for Congress. March 3, 2006

For the first time in its history, the Palestinian parliament is set to be led by Hamas, which the United States and European Union have designated a foreign terrorist organization. Although some lauded the generally free and fair election in January 2006, others criticized the outcome and accused Hamas of "hijacking" democracy. This report provides an overview of the new political realities in the West Bank and Gaza after the election, the challenges Fatah and Hamas face, and possible implications for U.S. policy.


040-   How Not to Make Peace: "Conflict Syndrome" and the Demise of the Oslo Accords. By Robert L. Rothstein. United States Institute of Peace (USIP). March, 2006.

In assessing the reasons for the Oslo Accords' failure, the author, an international relations professor, writes that it is essential to understand the "conflict syndrome" that affects negotiating and decision-making processes. The author identifies various policy implications of persistent conflict syndrome.


041-   The New Age of Terrorism. By Brian Michael Jenkins. RAND Corporation, 2006

This paper considers how terrorism has changed over the past four decades. Terrorists are not monolithic, neither are they isolated. They innovate; exploit new technology; learn from one another; imitate successful tactics; produce manuals of instruction based on experience, debate tactics, targets, and limits on violence, and justify their actions with doctrines and theories.


042-   Terrorist Financing: How The New Generation Of Jihadists Funds Itself. By Loretta Napoleoni,. RUSI Journal, vol. 151, no. 1, February 2006, pp. 60-65

Napoleoni reviews the policies implemented to combat terrorist financing since 9/11 and argues that they are obsolete because the structure of terrorism financing is no longer transnational, but deeply rooted in individual countries. Failure of the international community to pursue a unified strategy resulted in lost opportunities and fractured anti-money laundering efforts, she says.


043-   EGYPT.....Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2005. U.S. Department of State, March 8, 2006

These reports describe the performance of 196 countries in putting into practice their international commitments on human rights. These basic rights, reflected in the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, have been embraced by people of every culture and color, every background and belief, and constitute what President Bush calls the "non-negotiable demands of human dignity." This is Egypt's Human Rights' selection.


044-   State Department to Release Annual Human Rights Report USINFO, Department of State, March 8, 2006.



Articles in Arabic & English announcing the reports on Human Rights Practices for 2005.


045-   ENGAGING AUTOCRATIC ALLIES TO PROMOTE DEMOCRACY. By David Adesnik and Michael McFaul Washington Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 2, Spring 2006, pp. 7-26

The U.S. should improve its efforts to promote democracy abroad, especially under regime-change conditions and in autocratic allies such as Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Algeria and Pakistan, through diplomatic engagement, according to authors Adesnik and McFaul. NGOs lack the ability to confront regimes directly, but the U.S. government can challenge autocratic regimes through what Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice has called transformational diplomacy.


046-   Islamic Law Resource - Website

Provides resources for the study of Islamic law and modern Middle East legal systems very impressive series of resources, of interest to researchers.


047-   Bush Proclaims March 2006 Women's History Month. USINFO, Department of State, March 2, 2006.



Praising the achievements of women in fields from social reform to civil rights, in American communities from African American to the American Indian, President Bush proclaimed March 2006 Women's History Month. It calls on Americans to honor women's accomplishments and contributions throughout the years.


048-   ELDIS Gateway to Development Information – Website

A website with 18,096 online documents 4,500 organizations 15,000 email messages, Eldis is one of a family of knowledge services. Include among others, are Gender, Climate change, Biodiversity, Forestry, Food security health and Health systems, as well as manuals and toolkits.


049-   How Do I Love Thee. By Lori Gottleib. Atlantic Monthly, March 2006, pp. 58-70.

The author, a single woman, interviews operators of online and personal matchmaking services and throws her name into the roster while doing so. Gottlieb notes that a new "science" of attraction is being developed by academic researchers and they are being used worldwide. It is still evolving, the author notes, and "it may well take a generation before we learn whether the psychological, anthropological, or sociological model works best". The author, however, was unable to find a suitable match.


050-   National Women's Studies Association (NWSA) - Website

Links to scholarship information, job announcements and links to NWSA publications. NWSA has a vision of a world in which all persons can develop to their fullest potential and be free from all the ideologies and structures that consciously and unconsciously oppress and exploit some for the advantage of others.


051-   "The Scholarship on Women in Islamic Societies" From a study entitled "Women in Islamic societies a selection review of social scientific literature." By Priscilla Offenhauer. The Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, November 2005. (pages 13-26)

Because the scholarly literature on Muslim women has grown voluminous in the past two decades, this study is necessarily selective in its coverage. It highlights major works and representative studies in each of several subject areas and alerts the reader to additional significant research in lengthy footnotes. The selected section covers Assessing Women's Status: categories of data, categories of scholarly work; specialized and microstudies; consolidation of knowledge about women in Islamic Societies, and representation of different regions, nations, and classes.


052-   Women: Builders of Communities and Dreams. USINFO, Department of State, February, 2006

The 2006 Honorees represent women creating community and sustaining dreams in countless ways and in myriad venues. This year's theme, Women: Builders of Communities and Dreams, honors the spirit of possibility and hope set in motion by generations of women in their creation of communities and their encouragement of dreams. The theme honors women for bringing communities together and restoring hope in the face of impossible odds. Community comes in many forms, and dreams change, expand, and are sometimes fulfilled.


053-   Women of Influence. USINFO, Department of State, February, 2006

"Women of Influence" a publication about 12 notable American women, paired to illustrate key developments in American history, from colonial times to the 20th century. It consists of six mini-chapters: "Guiding Lights to a New World", "The Colonial Era", "Birth of a Nation" "Breaking the Chains of Slavery", "A Woman's Right to Vote", and "A Role in Government". This Web publication offers short historical backgrounders to introduce each pair, profiles for the 12 women, links, and lists for additional reading. The publication eventually will be expanded to include additional notable women from the United States and other countries.


054-   Women of Influence: A Conversation With Cokie Roberts. By Bruce Cole, Roberts Cokie. Humanities, vol. 27, no. 1, January/February 2006, pp. 6-9, 51-54

Cole, chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities, talked with news analyst Cokie Roberts about her recent book, FOUNDING MOTHERS, and the importance of women in U.S. political history. Comparing the recent advances of women in politics with the role women played in the early days of the Republic, Roberts also discussed the difficulties of locating the original letters and manuscripts that formed the basis of the book. In a related article, "A Life in Letters: The Story of John and Abigail Adams," Maggie Riechers writes about the influence of Abigail Adams on her husband, President John Adams, throughout their fifty-year marriage.


055-   Women's Studies AT UM: Resources - Website

The Website links to local information from the Women's Studies department at University of Maryland College Park.


056-   Women's Studies Database - Website

Information about conferences, employment, legislative issues, and syllabi from women's studies classes. The University of Maryland women's studies web site, begun in September 1992, serves those people interested in the women's studies profession and in general women's issues.


057-   American Students Drawn to Mideast Studies through Music Ensemble. By Stephen Kaufman. March 01, 2006.



The audience in the DuPont Circle conference room easily could have imagined itself sitting in a concert hall in Lebanon or Egypt, listening to the sound of an Arab lute, or 'ud, playing a solo over a delicate orchestral drone and a dynamic rhythm. But, remarkably, the Arab music was being performed by young American college students from Virginia.


058-   The Diversity of Muslims in the United States: Views as Americans. By Qamar-ul Huda, U.S. Institute of Peace, February 2006

With the war against terrorism and an increased attention on the Muslim world, this report analyzes ways Muslims in the United States understand their roles as Americans in combating terrorism and their unique contributions toward conflict prevention and peacemaking.


059-   Journalist Discusses How Blogs Shape the Media, Politics. USINFO, Department of State. March 26, 2006

Journalist David Kline discussed the growing influence of blogs on politics and the news media during a March 20-24 rolling webchat. A transcript of this webchat is available on this site.


060-   State of the News Media 2006: Annual Report on American Journalism. Project for Excellence in Journalism, 2006

Project for Excellence in Journalism's annual report tracking and analyzing the state of the American news media.


061-   Yale University Develops Online Arabic Library. USINFO, Department of State, April 4, 2006.



Library administrators at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, are cataloging Middle Eastern journals from libraries in the United States, Europe and the Middle East and converting Arabic-language texts to a digital storage medium in a project to create a virtual library of Middle Eastern culture.


062-   Back to the Future for African Infrastructure Why State-Ownership is no More Promising the Second Time Around. John Nellis. The Center for Global Development, February 2006.

African state-owned enterprises (SOEs), particularly those in infrastructure, have a long history of poor performance. But moves in the 1990s to rely instead on private-sector participation and ownership have yet to deliver the hoped-for improvements. Is a return to SOEs the solution? This paper gives details.


063-   Credit Markets, Creditors Rights and Economic Development. By Kenneth W. Dam. The Law School of Chicago University, February 2006

According to the author, a law professor and Brookings Institution fellow, credit markets are just as important as equity markets to financial development. In most countries, far more finance is generated in credit markets than in public equity markets. He notes that even in the United States, which is usually thought of as the country with the most pronounced equity culture, far more money is raised in credit markets than in equity markets. Because banks play such a central role in the developing-world economies, the author says it is important to look at the special role of banks in those countries. The focus of his working paper is banks and the special problems that creditors ~ not just banks but all creditors — face when the borrower cannot pay or fails to pay. He examines the legal issues germane to creditors' rights and bankruptcy law.


064-   The Economic Costs of the Iraq War: An Appraisal Three Years After the Beginning of the Conflict. By Linda Bilmes and Joseph Stiglitz. National Bureau of Economic Research, February 2006

This paper attempts to provide a more complete reckoning of the costs of the Iraq War, using standard economic and accounting / budgetary frameworks. Using the Congressional Budget Office (CBO's) projection of maintaining troops in Iraq through 2015, the true costs may exceed $2 trillion.

The cost is much larger than the administration's original estimate of $50-$60bn. The costs estimated do not include those borne by other countries, either directly (military expenditures) or indirectly (the increased price of oil). Most importantly, we have not included the costs to Iraq, either in terms of destruction of infrastructure or the loss of lives. These would all clearly raise the costs significantly.


065-   Financing Hope: Improving Microfinance. By Noah Hertz-Bunzl. Harvard International Review, Winter 2006

Hertz-Bunzl says microfinance has enjoyed a recent boom throughout Africa, but poor loan management and lack of critical innovation have limited its reach. Microfinance needs to improve in order to reach its potential to alleviate poverty, he states.

For example, microfinance banks must operate in a sustainable manner, which means aligning interest rates with repayment rates to ensure they remain in the black ~ and driving both of those rates in the right direction by insisting on collateral and following through by collecting from loan defaulters.


066-   U.S. Calls for "Fundamental Changes" in IMF, World Bank. USINFO, Department of State, 01 March, 2006

Organizations must adapt to global changes, U.S. official says. The United States is calling for continued "fundamental changes" for the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, says Tim Adams, Under Secretary for International Affairs at the U.S. Treasury Department.

Adams spoke to the press March 1 in Tokyo, where he attended the G-20 Workshop on Reforming the Bretton Woods Institutions hosted by Japan's Ministry of Finance. Adams said that during his discussions with Japanese officials, it was agreed that "fundamental change is needed" for the IMF and World Bank to continue to adapt to changes in the global economic and financial system.


067-   Agenda for Climate Action. Pew Center on Global Climate Change. February 2006.

In its report, the Pew Center develops and articulates a course of action for addressing climate change - which it terms "one of the most complex issues that the world will face in this century." It takes a comprehensive look at a suite of climate, energy, and technology policies that could provide meaningful reductions in greenhouse gas emissions throughout the economy. The Center recommends fifteen actions it believes the U.S. must take in the following areas: Science and technology research, Market-based emissions management, Emissions reductions in key sectors, Energy production and use, Adaptation, International engagement.


068-   Be worried. Be very worried. Earth at the tipping point. By Jeffrey Kluger et al; Time, April 3, 2006, pp. 28-62

In this cover-story special series of articles on global warming and climate change, TIME writers and photographers paint the most alarming picture to date of the changes taking place around the world. The authors note that "the debate is over — global warming is upon us with a vengeance", writing that climatic disruptions are now feeding off one another; scientists, who have been warning about this for decades, now fear that we may have reached a point of no return. The authors explain how the planet has tipped into this crisis so quickly, and what can and is being done to mitigate the effects of global climate change.


069-   ECOLEX - A Gateway to Environmental Law - Website

ECOLEX is a global database providing the most comprehensive, source of information on environmental law in all areas of the world. Contains information on major national and international judicial decisions. Allows researchers to compare environmental laws by country.


070-   Environmental Information Resources – Website

Topical sections include US environmental resources (listed both by subject and by name), international environmental resources by country.


071-   NASA Survey Confirms Climate Effect on Polar Ice Sheets. USINFO, Department of State, March 09, 2006

In the most comprehensive survey ever undertaken of the massive ice sheets covering Greenland and Antarctica, NASA scientists confirm that climate warming is changing how much water remains locked in Earth's largest storehouses of ice and snow.


072-   The National Environmental Health Association – Website

Established since 1937, the association serves all environmental Scientists in the field of health offering special continuing education and training courses.


073-   International Cooperation Brings Success in War on Drugs: State Department Issues Annual Authoritative Report on Global Narcotics Trade. By Charlene Porter. USINFO, Department of State, March 1, 2006. English & Arabic



Steadily increasing cooperation among nations led to "significant successes" in reducing international drug trafficking and criminal activity in 2005, the U.S. State Department declared in releasing the 2006 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR) March 1. Assistant Secretary of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Anne Patterson announced the findings at a State Department briefing. "The progress we can point to in this year's INCSR reflects the work of many countries to consolidate the gains against drugs and crime, with many brave people throughout the world taking great personal risk," she said.


074-   United Nations Predicts Bird Flu in the Americas Within a Year, Influenza Coordinator Nabarro urges high alert for veterinary services worldwide. By Judy Aita. USINFO, Department of State, March 09, 2006

Bird flu is expected to cross the Atlantic Ocean and reach the Americas within a year, a senior U.N. official said March 8. Dr. David Nabarro, senior U.N. coordinator for avian and human influenza, said that given the flight patterns of wild birds that have been spreading avian influenza (bird flu) from Asia to Europe and Africa, birds infected with the H5N1 virus could reach the Americas within the next six to 12 months.


075-   U.S. Health Secretary Says More Bird Flu Vaccines Coming. US1NFO, Department of State, March 7, 2006

U.S. Health agencies are continuing to develop vaccine alternatives that will protect against the evolving avian influenza virus, U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services Michael Leavitt said March 6. In 2005, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) successfully tested a vaccine that produced an immune response to one strain of the H5N1 virus that swept out of Southeast Asia, through Central Asia and into Europe and Africa.


076-   America: Helping the People of Sudan. Fact sheet, U.S. Department of State, June 12, 2006.

"Sudan is one of the highest foreign policy priorities for President Bush and his administration. Progress in Southern Sudan is seen through the North-South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) and the first steps toward a resolution to the humanitarian crisis in Darfur with the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA)", the writer says in this fact sheet.


077-   The Iraqi Virtual Science Library. Fact Sheet, Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, U.S. Department of State, June 5, 2006.

"The Iraqi Virtual Science Library (IVSL), launched on May 3, 2006, is a digital portal that provides Iraqi universities and research institutes with access to an outstanding collection of millions of full text articles from over 17,000 premier scientific and engineering journals and their archives, in addition to technical content and educational resources. Its goal is to help rebuild the educational and scientific infrastructure in Iraq.


078-   NATO's Growing Role in the Greater Middle East. Paper by Philip Gordon in Emirates Lecture Series, Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research, 2006.

NATO will not become a security alliance for the Middle East - as it was for Western Europe - with US and European bases scattered throughout the region. Nonetheless, despite all the differences among NATO members and the obstacles to a NATO role in the Middle East region, the fact remains that the United States and Europe will continue to have significant common security interests there, and NATO remains the best mechanism for coordinating their policies and operations. Those who have for years predicted NATO's demise will, in all likelihood, continue to be confounded. The author says.


079-   The Pew Global Attitudes Project. America's Image Slips, But Allies Share U.S. Concerns over Iran, Hamas. June 13, 2006.

The Pew Research Center's latest annual survey finds "America's global image has again slipped and support for the war on terrorism has declined even among close allies like Japan." More details find that "Favorable opinions of the U.S. have fallen in most of the 15 countries surveyed, despite some positive feelings in 2005 due in part to US aid for Tsunami victims. The U.S. and major allies share concerns over Iran and Hamas in contrast to opinions in predominantly Muslim countries." as the report states.


080-   Political Strategies to Counterterrorism. by Michael Rubin and Suzanne Gershowitz, American Enterprise Institute (AEI,) July 12, 2006

Terrorism is a growing threat. The September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center and subsequent attacks on Madrid's Atocha train station and the London underground signaled that 21 st century terrorism was not a problem that could be localized to the Middle East and South Asia. As the terror threat grows and groups like Al-Qaeda and Hezbollah demonstrate worldwide reach, democracies rumble not only for an effective political strategy to combat terrorism, but also for a definition. The article gives details.


081-   U.S.: Forty Years of the Freedom of Information Act. Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). Tuesday, July 4, 2006

The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), a cornerstone of media freedom and open society in the United States, celebrates its 40th anniversary on July 4th.

The law gives every citizen the legal right to file a request for information from any government agency, including the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The FOIA even gives citizens the right to sue the CIA. RFE/RL correspondent Julie A. Corwin asked Steven Aftergood, director of the Project on Government Secrecy at the Federation of American Scientists in Washington, D.C., to explain how the FOIA works.


082-   U.S. Independence Day a Civic and Social Event, USINFO, Dept. of State, By Michael Jay Friedman, June 28, 2006.



The United States celebrates its Independence Day on July 4, a day of patriotic celebration and family events throughout the country. In the words of Founding Father John Adams, the holiday would be "the great anniversary festival. The writer goes into more details about the celebration.


083-   The Voting Rights Act in Perspective Americans Celebrate Anniversary of Voting Rights Act. By Micheal Jay Friedman. USINFO, Department of States, 27 July 2006

The vote is the most powerful instrument ever devised by man for breaking down injustice and destroying the terrible walls which imprison men because they are different from other men. — President Lyndon Baines Johnson, August 6, 1965.


084-   Four African Freedom Activists Honored; USINFO, Dept of State. By Rachel J. King. June 28, 2006.

Four African activists — two men and two women -- were honored with the 2006 Democracy Award of the National Endowment for Democracy (NED) on June 27 for their contributions to the advancement of democracy, human rights, gender equality, government transparency and free and fair elections in their homelands. The article gives details.


085-   Law Enforcement and Arab American Community Relations after September 11, 2001: Engagement in a Time of Uncertainty. Vera Institute of Justice, June 2006.

"This study, one of the first to examine the effects, nationally, of September 11 on law enforcement agencies and communities with high concentrations of Arab American residents, provides a window into current relations between Arab Americans and local and federal law enforcement, as well as the challenges that each of these stakeholders faces in responding to pressures that are increasingly global in nature. It also seeks to understand and document promising outreach practices among these groups." says the author.


086-   Responding to the Democracy Promotion Backlash. By Thomas Carothers. Testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee Hearing, June 8, 2006.

The subject of democracy promotion has in recent years moved to the center stage of U.S. foreign policy as a result of the heightened awareness of the strong connections between the state of democracy in the world and vital U.S. national interests. The U.S. government is devoting greater resources than ever before to the task of supporting democracy abroad. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play a crucial role in implementing U.S. democracy assistance programs. Many organizations involved in the democracy field are encountering significant obstacles and difficulties in the current international context, some of which are the result of problematic U.S. policies and some of which are the result of causes outside the control of the United States. Understanding these new challenges and their causes is crucial to improving the effectiveness of all democracy promotion efforts, governmental and non-governmental alike. The testimony, by Thomas Carothers, Director, Democracy and Rule of Law Project Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, D.C. gives details.


087-   Think Again: Al Jazeera (AJ). By Hugh Miles. Foreign Policy, July/August 2006.

In FP's "Think Again" feature, the author of Al Jazeera: The Inside Story of the Arab News Channel that is Challenging the West (2005), takes a measured look at attitudes toward Al Jazeera in the U.S. and the Arab world. Miles examines conventional arguments: AJ supports terrorism ("False"), AJ is anti-Semitic ("Wrong"), AJ is spreading political freedom ("Wishful Thinking"), AJ is biased ("True"), AJ is censored ("Not Yet"), AJ wants to compete with CNN and BBC ("Yes, and it plans to"), only Arabs will watch AJ International ("Not so Fast").


088-   Why God Is Winning. By Timothy Samuel Shah and Monica Duffy Toft. Foreign Policy, July/August 2006

The authors assert that modernization and the spread of democracy around the world are enhancing the reach of religious political movements. Religious groups that emerge from democratic processes, such as Hamas in the Palestinian Authority, tend to be more organized, more popular and more legitimate than perhaps religious leaders a few decades ago but not necessarily less violent. In the U.S. 2004 presidential election, religion was a stronger predictor of vote choice than gender, age or class.  Although extreme religious ideology is a leading motivation for most transnational terrorist attacks, religion has also mobilized scores of people to oppose authoritarian regimes, inaugurate democratic transitions, support human rights and relieve human suffering.


089-   World Cup Special: Football, Sports and Development. World Bank, June 2006. (Speculation on impact of national success in major sporting events on a nation's economy)

For two months every four years, the world stops for the World Cup. It is estimated that 1.3 billion people watched the final of the 2002 World Cup in Japan, a number which is sure to rise this year in Berlin. So, earlier this year, research teams from some of the world's leading investment banks shifted their eyes from stocks and bonds to predicting the winners of this summer's matches in Germany. The reason - studies suggest that success or failure in football (or soccer) may affect a country's economy.


090-   Young Football Players at World Cup Revel in Matches: State Department initiative emphasizes team building, conflict management. By Jane Mors. USINFO, Department of State, June 23, 2006.



It is a very tense time for many football players attending the World Cup matches in Germany. But for a group of 30 young athletes from around the world, attending the football tournament (soccer in the United States) is the highlight of a two-week State Department program that emphasizes teamwork, intercultural understanding and respect, and conflict management.


091-   International Students Find Friendship through Sports, Arts, By Cecilia Martin, USINFO, Department of State, June 30, 2006.



The writer explores how Sports and arts are a means of fostering international goodwill at the World Scholar-Athlete Games in Kingston, Rhode Island, where nearly 2,000 secondary school students from around the globe have gathered for a week of friendly competition and collaboration from June 24 to July 2.


092-   Islam: Muslim-Americans to Improve U.S. Image Abroad. By Heather Maher, Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. June 16, 2006.

The article recounts the birth of the State Department's Civic Outreach program as a people-to people initiative designed to counter the negative image of America in the world.


093-   Life Lessons: How Soap Operas Can Change the World. Hannah Rosin. New Yorker, Vol. 82, No. 16, June 5, 2006.

Drama serials, originating in the 1950s in the United States as long-running daytime "soap operas," have proven to be the most enduring and popular form of television programming. Now known worldwide as telenovelas, these TV and radio programs are being transformed in many countries as vehicles to teach literacy, combat AIDS, fight domestic abuse, and encourage civic participation. The article describes how New York-based Population Communications International works with the United Nations and USAID, as well as grassroots community groups and social workers, to develop scripts that reflect the cultures and traditions of their audiences in poor countries while transmitting messages of empowerment.


094-   Governance and Private Investment in the Middle East and North Africa. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3934, June 2006.

The writer states that "This paper addresses the issue of the low level of private investment in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, with special emphasis on the role of governance." Based on the existing literature, the authors categorize what types of governance institutions are more detrimental to entrepreneurial investments.

He concludes that "This result is particularly true in the case of "administrative quality " in the form of control of corruption, bureaucratic quality, investment-friendly profile of administration, and law and order, as well as for political stability. "These findings bring new empirical evidence on the subject of private investment in the developing world and in MENA countries in particular." says the author giving details.


095-   High Level Delegation to Attend Global Summit of Women June 9-12, 2006. Media note, Office of the spokesman, U.S. Department of State, June7, 2006

Under Secretary of State for Management, Henrietta H. Fore led the U.S. delegation to the Global Summit of Women in Cairo, Egypt, June 9-12. Global respect for women is a foreign policy imperative, and the United States supports the Global Summit of Women for its emphasis on women's economic advancement. The article gives details.


096-   Two Myths of Globalization. By A. Edward Gottesman. World Policy Journal, vol. 23, no. 1, Spring 2006

The author notes that an economic discussion of globalization has often focused on two widely accepted, but mainly misunderstood, theories. First, China is the "next economic superpower. The second myth is that the current-account deficit the U.S. has run for a number of years (about a third from trade with China) is "unsustainable" and will result in some global economic catastrophe.

The author writes that if we want to make sense of globalization, we need to re-focus our thinking about globalization by not comparing apples (the mature Western industrial economies) with oranges (the economies of what used to be called the underdeveloped countries, now designated as developing countries or newly industrialized countries — NCIs, for short). In a global free market, the accumulated wealth and productive resources built up over three hundred years in Europe and in North America are the main source of financing, either directly or indirectly, for the growth of these NCIs. Debunking these theories of globalization requires an attempt to put the world economy in perspective so that one can understand the complex and often fragile process of globalization.


097-   U.S.-Arab Economic Forum Confronts Cultural Misunderstandings: State's Hughes calls for open economies, open minds, open dialogue. By David Shelby, USINFO, Department of State, June 27, 2006.



"Misunderstanding between the Arab world and the United States is a two-way street, according to Under Secretary of State Karen Hughes, and if the two sides are to build a more hopeful future, they must address this problem together by fostering open economies, open minds and open dialogue" says the writer.


098-   U.S. To Issue Redesigned $5 Note in 2008, USINFO, By Elizabeth Kelleher, Dept. of State, June 29, 2006.



The U.S. government announced June 29 plans to issue a redesigned $5 note in 2008 and to follow it with a redesigned $ 100 note within months.


099-   U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Rising Oil Prices. James K. Jackson. Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service (CQR), June 9, 2006.

"Petroleum prices have risen sharply since early 2004. At the same time the average amount of imports of energy-related petroleum products has fallen slightly. The combination of sharply rising prices and a slightly lower level of imports of energy-related petroleum products translate into an escalating cost for those imports. This rising cost added an estimated $70 billion to the nation's trade deficit in 2005 and could add $80-$ 100 billion in 2006, depending on how sustainable is the rate of recent price increases. This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the rising oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade deficit and will be updated as warranted by events."


100-   Clean Energy Solutions. E-Journal, USINFO, Department of State, July 2006

The E-Journal focuses on the production and usage of energy, the new technologies that can reduce our dependency on oil; other fossil fuels and limiting greenhouse gas emissions. It features an introduction by Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodrnan and a contribution by Under Secretary of State Paula Dobriansky on the critical role of energy in policies designed to support sustainable development. The journal is being issued just prior to the meeting of the G-8 leaders in St. Petersburg, where energy security is expected to be a major topic.


101-   Rescuing a Planet Under Stress. By Lester R. Brown. The Futurist, vol. 40, no. 4, July-August 2006.

"The Earth cannot sustain the levels of energy and resource consumption of the Western lifestyle if it is adopted by hundreds of millions of people in developing nations", writes the President of the Earth Policy Institute. The world must move toward a new economic model powered by renewable energy — such as wind, solar, geothermal and biofuels — and by a manufacturing strategy which designs and creates all products for ultimate recycling. Brown suggests movement to an honest market which gives weight to factors currently overlooked or ignored — the indirect prices of production, the cost of environmental damage and consequences to future generations." with more details.


102-   Urban Watershed Management: Sustainability, One Stream at a Time. By Rutherford Piatt. Environment, May 1, 2006

The author, professor of geography at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, writes that modern cities have tended to cut the bonds between humans and the natural world, at the same time have had a growing adverse impact on their natural surroundings. The article features successful urban watershed management programs in Washington, D.C., Boston, Houston, and Portland, Oregon.





Additional Resources

















110-   INTERFAITH RESOURCES - FROM THE CASE FOUNDATION: Covers Organizations and Academic Centers Related To Inter Religious Dialogue and Cooperation.




112-   INFOMINE: Quality Websites arranged by Library of Congress subject headings (LCSH), chosen by subject experts on a variety of fields and disciplines






115-   LEGAL RESEARCH EXCHANGE: especially valuable to legal (comparative law and international law) researchers, and those researching Business and Trade topics


116-   SCOUT REPORT: A weekly listing of new Internet sites in all subject areas. (This offers a free subscription to the service)







Extra Internet Resources









121-   USINFO












Look especially at:

and a Subject Index a:


127-   THOMAS

For texts of the latest U.S. legislation and a search engine for bills recently passed.







Lists only sites as evaluated by librarians with many years experience in the topic.



Latest Documents and Developments in all fields, especially in technology.


132-   DOCUTICKER (The latest U.S. Government, NGO Reports and Think Tank documents)


133-   LEGAL RESEARCH EXCHANGE: especially valuable to legal (comparative law and international law) researchers, and those researching Business and Trade topics.


134-   SCOUT REPORT: A weekly listing of new Internet sites in all subject areas

This offers a free subscription to the service







From the University of California, Riverside









An incredible site with over 16,000 free full text documents in all subject areas, excellent for NGOs




143-   Middle East Research Links from the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR)













Compilation of bibliographic resources and research materials on the Middle East and North Africa organized by region, country and subject. Created and maintained by the Middle East Studies Department of Columbia University Libraries.



An online guide to Middle East-related web resources, from the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Texas at Austin.








154-   Librarians Index to the Internet








158-   InfoMine


159-   Academiclnfo


160-   Internet Public Library, University of Michigan




162-   SOSIG: (Social Science Information Gateway)


163-   OAlSTER: for uncovering digital treasures

RECORD 30 of 110 after searching on MOROCCO (text) and in descending order.


164-   Virtual Training Site


165-   Internet Resources arranged thematically



166-   Specific Legal Resources


167-   American Memory Project


168-   Virtual Libraries of the Middle East


169-   Middle East Studies (Columbia University)


170-   Virtual Reference Desks


171-   How to keep abreast of changes in the profession:


172-   Continuing Education/Distance Education

World Lecture Hall from the University of Texas at Austin.



173-   From the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Course on Sustainable Development

Other Open courseware Sites:


174-   Online Translators


175-   Virtual Reference


176-   Searching within Books:

Casablanca Morocco


177-   North American Public Libraries


178-   Thesis Full Text












































Contemporary Economic & Political Reports



209-   Reforming the Investment Climate

210-   The 2006 National Export Strategy

211-   The banking system in emerging economies: how much progress has been made?

212-   Information Economy Report 2006: The development perspective

213-   Economic Trends Report - Egypt May 2007

214-   Arab Reform Bulletin - May 2007

215-   Economic Freedom of the World - May 2006 - Annual report

216-    USA economy-in-brief - May 2007







Congress Library - Selected sites




217-   Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts.

         CRS report, updated August 22, 2008

218-   Sovereign Wealth Funds

           New Challenges from a Changing Landscape. Hearing before a subcommittee of the U.S. House Committee on Financial Services, September 10, 2008

219-   Foreign Direct Investment in the United States:

         An Economic Analysis. CRS report, updated August 15, 2008

220-   U.S. Direct Investment Abroad:

         Trends and Current Issues. CRS report, updated August 15, 2008

221-   The United States and a Net Debtor Nation:

         Overview of the International Investment Position. CRS report, updated July 22, 2008

222-   The Budget and Economic Outlook:

         An Update. CBO, September 2008

223-   World Trade Organization Negotiations:

         The Doha Development Agenda. CRS report, updated August 18, 2008

224-   China’s Economic Conditions.

         CRS report, updated August 7, 2008







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